In , when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping, knapping and flaking. The Archaic period , which began between and BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture.
The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization. Such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as stone axes, woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens , which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent. The Woodland period commenced around BC, when various new cultural attributes appeared.
During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, and extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces. The concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses.
One such complex was the Angel Mounds. They had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the midth century for reasons that remain unclear. The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee , Miami , and Illini. Later they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys.
French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By , Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In , Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the s as a result.
With British victory in , the French were forced to cede to the British crown all their lands in North America east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies. The tribes in Indiana did not give up: The British royal proclamation of designated the land west of the Appalachians for Native American use, and excluded British colonists from the area, which the Crown called "Indian Territory".
In , the American Revolutionary War began as the colonists sought self-government and independence from the British. The majority of the fighting took place near the East Coast, but the Patriot military officer George Rogers Clark called for an army to help fight the British in the west. During the war, Clark managed to cut off British troops, who were attacking the eastern colonists from the west. His success is often credited for changing the course of the American Revolutionary War. In Congress separated Ohio from the Northwest Territory, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory.
Starting with the Battle of Fallen Timbers in and Treaty of Greenville , , Indian titles to Indiana lands were extinguished by usurpation, purchase, or war and treaty. About half the state was acquired in the St. Mary's Purchase from the Miami in Purchases weren't complete until the Treaty of Mississinwas in acquired the last of the reserved Indian lands in the northeast. A portrait of the Indiana frontier about The frontier was defined by the treaty of Fort Wayne in , adding much of southwestern lands around Vincinnes and southeastern lands adjacent to Cincinnati, to areas along the Ohio River as part of U.
Indianapolis wouldn't be a populated place for 15 more years, and central and northern Indiana Territory remained savage wilderness. Indian presence was waning, but still a threat to settlement. Only two counties, Clark and Dearborn in the extreme southeast, had been organized. Land titles issued out of Cincinnati were sparse. In the Shawnee chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa encouraged other tribes in the territory to resist European settlement.
After his death, armed resistance to United States control ended in the region. Most Native American tribes in the state were later removed to west of the Mississippi River in the s and s after US negotiations and purchase of their lands. In order to decrease the threat of Indian raids following the Battle of Tippecanoe, Corydon , a town in the far southern part of Indiana, was named the second capital of the Indiana Territory in May An Enabling Act was passed to provide an election of delegates to write a constitution for Indiana.
On June 10, , delegates assembled at Corydon to write the constitution, which was completed in 19 days. President James Madison approved Indiana's admission into the union as the nineteenth state on December 11, Many European immigrants went west to settle in Indiana in the early 19th century. The largest immigrant group to settle in Indiana were Germans , as well as numerous immigrants from Ireland and England. Following statehood, the new government worked to transform Indiana from a frontier into a developed, well-populated, and thriving state, beginning significant demographic and economic changes.
The state's founders initiated a program, Indiana Mammoth Internal Improvement Act, that led to the construction of roads, canals , railroads and state-funded public schools. The plans bankrupted the state and were a financial disaster, but increased land and produce value more than fourfold. Among its provisions were a prohibition on public debt and extension of suffrage to African-Americans.
During the American Civil War , Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the affairs of the nation. As the first western state to mobilize for the United States in the war, Indiana had soldiers participating in all of the major engagements. Indiana remained a largely agricultural state; post-war industries included food processing, such as milling grain, distilling it into alcohol, and meatpacking; building of wagons, buggies, farm machinery, and hardware. With the onset of the industrial revolution, Indiana industry began to grow at an accelerated rate across the northern part of the state.
With industrialization, workers developed labor unions and suffrage movements arose in relation to the progress of women. The construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the start of auto-related industries were also related to the auto industry boom. During the s, Indiana, like the rest of the nation, was affected by the Great Depression. The economic downturn had a wide-ranging negative impact on Indiana, such as the decline of urbanization. The Dust Bowl further to the west resulted in many migrants fleeing into the more industrialized Midwest.
McNutt 's administration struggled to build a state-funded welfare system to help the overwhelmed private charities. During his administration, spending and taxes were both cut drastically in response to the Depression, and the state government was completely reorganized. McNutt ended Prohibition in the state and enacted the state's first income tax. On several occasions, he declared martial law to put an end to worker strikes.
Industry became the primary employer, a trend that continued into the s. Urbanization during the s and s led to substantial growth in the state's cities. The auto, steel and pharmaceutical industries topped Indiana's major businesses. Welsh adopted its first sales tax of two percent. In , the Census Bureau reported Indiana's population as Beginning in , a series of amendments to the state constitution were proposed. With adoption, the Indiana Court of Appeals was created and the procedure of appointing justices on the courts was adjusted.
The oil crisis created a recession that hurt the automotive industry in Indiana. Companies such as Delco Electronics and Delphi began a long series of downsizing that contributed to high unemployment rates in manufacturing in Anderson , Muncie , and Kokomo. The restructuring and deindustrialization trend continued until the s, when the national and state economy began to diversify and recover.
The state includes two natural regions of the United States: Much of its appearance is a result of elements left behind by glaciers. Central Indiana is mainly flat with some low rolling hills except where rivers cut deep valleys through the plain, like at the Wabash River and Sugar Creek and soil composed of glacial sands, gravel and clay, which results in exceptional farmland. In northwest Indiana there are various sand ridges and dunes, some reaching nearly feet in height. Southern Indiana is characterized by valleys and rugged, hilly terrain, contrasting from much of the state.
Here, bedrock is exposed at the surface and isn't buried in glacial till like further north. Because of the prevalent Indiana limestone , there are numerous caves, caverns, and quarries in the area. Joseph, and Maumee rivers. The Wabash River , which is the longest free-flowing river east of the Mississippi River , is the official river of Indiana. There are about lakes listed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indiana had a humid continental climate , with cold winters and hot, wet summers,  with only the extreme southern portion of the state lying within the humid subtropical climate , which receives more precipitation than other parts of Indiana.
Temperatures generally diverge from the north and south sections of the state. While droughts occasionally occur in the state, rainfall totals are distributed relatively equally throughout the year. Lake effect snow accounts for roughly half of the snowfall in northwest and north central Indiana due to the effects of the moisture and relative warmth of Lake Michigan upwind. In a report, Indiana was ranked eighth in a list of the top 20 tornado-prone states based on National Weather Service data from through Indiana is one of thirteen U.
Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century.
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At present most of the state observes Eastern Time ; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time. Debate continues on the matter. Before , most of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time DST. Since April the entire state observes DST. Indiana is divided into 92 counties. As of [update] , the state includes 16 metropolitan and 25 micropolitan statistical areas , incorporated cities, towns, and several other smaller divisions and statistical areas.
Indianapolis is the capital of Indiana and its largest city. The state's population density was Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 6. German is the largest ancestry reported in Indiana, with Persons citing American Hamilton , Hendricks , Johnson , and Hancock. The other county is Dearborn County , which is near Cincinnati , Ohio. Hamilton County has also been the fastest-growing county in the area consisting of Indiana and its bordering states of Illinois , Michigan , Ohio and Kentucky , and is the 20th fastest-growing county in the country.
With a population of ,, Indianapolis is the largest city in Indiana and 12th largest in the United States, according to the Census. Three other cities in Indiana have a population greater than , Fort Wayne , , Evansville , and South Bend , Indianapolis has largest population of the state's metropolitan areas and 33rd largest in the country. Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
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Based on population estimates for , 6. Census demographic data for Indiana, the median age is As of the U. Indiana is home to the Benedictine St. Two conservative denominations, the Free Methodist Church and the Wesleyan Church , have their headquarters in Indianapolis as does the Christian Church. Spanish is the second-most-spoken language in Indiana, after English. Indiana has a constitutional democratic republican form of government with three branches: The Governor of Indiana serves as the chief executive of the state and has the authority to manage the government as established in the Constitution of Indiana.
The governor and the lieutenant governor are jointly elected to four-year terms, with gubernatorial elections running concurrent with United States presidential elections , , , , etc. Special sessions of the General Assembly can be called upon by the governor as well as have the power to select and remove leaders of nearly all state departments, boards and commissions.
Other notable powers include calling out the Indiana Guard Reserve or the Indiana National Guard in times of emergency or disaster, issuing pardons or commuting the sentence of any criminal offenders except in cases of treason or impeachment and possessing an abundant amount of statutory authority.
The lieutenant governor can only vote to break ties. If the governor dies in office, becomes permanently incapacitated, resigns or is impeached, the lieutenant governor becomes governor. If both the governor and lieutenant governor positions are unoccupied, the Senate President pro tempore becomes governor.
The Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly and the House of Representatives is the lower house. Both the Senate and House of Representatives can introduce legislation, with the exception that the Senate is not authorized to initiate legislation that will affect revenue. Bills are debated and passed separately in each house, but must be passed by both houses before they can be submitted to the Governor.
The General Assembly has no authority to create legislation that targets only a particular community. It also can oversee the activities of the executive branch of the state government, has restricted power to regulate the county governments within the state, and has exclusive power to initiate the method to alter the Indiana Constitution. The governor selects judges for the supreme and appeal courts from a group of applicants chosen by a special commission. After serving for two years, the judges must acquire the support of the electorate to serve for a year term.
Local circuit courts are where the majority of cases begin with a trial and the consequence decided by the jury. The Supreme Court does have original and sole jurisdiction in certain specific areas including the practice of law, discipline or disbarment of Judges appointed to the lower state courts, and supervision over the exercise of jurisdiction by the other lower courts of the State.
The remaining two counties, Dearborn and Ohio, are combined into one circuit. Many counties operate superior courts in addition to the circuit court. In densely populated counties where the caseload is traditionally greater, separate courts have been established to solely hear either juvenile, criminal, probate or small claims cases. The establishment, frequency and jurisdiction of these additional courts varies greatly from county to county. There are 85 city and town courts in Indiana municipalities, created by local ordinance, typically handling minor offenses and not considered courts of record.
County officials that are elected to four-year terms include an auditor, recorder, treasurer, sheriff, coroner and clerk of the circuit court. All incorporated cities in Indiana have a mayor and council form of municipal government. Towns are governed by a town council and townships are governed by a township trustee and advisory board. Among individual categories, Indiana ranked above average in budget transparency 1 , government digitization 6 , and fiscal stability 8 , and ranked average in state integrity From to , a resident of Indiana was included in all but one presidential election.
Hendricks was elected Vice President of the United States. He served until his death on November 25, , under President Grover Cleveland. He remains the only U. Indiana Senator Charles W. Indiana has long been considered to be a Republican stronghold,   particularly in Presidential races. Indiana was one of only ten states to support Republican Wendell Willkie in Bush won the state by a wide margin while the election was much closer overall. The state has only supported a Democrat for president five times since Roosevelt won the state again in Johnson over Republican Barry Goldwater.
While only five Democratic presidential nominees have carried Indiana since , 11 Democrats were elected governor during that time.
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Indiana elects two senators and nine representatives to Congress. Historically, Republicans have been strongest in the eastern and central portions of the state, while Democrats have been strongest in the northwestern part of the state. Occasionally, certain counties in the southern part of the state will vote Democratic.
They expected tithing on par with white congregations to help pay for the next round of conversion. To the missionaries, with the emphasis on settlement and farming, praying villages represented a way station on the journey to being full-fledged, tithing Protestants.
Praying villages often became something altogether different for the Indians. By tossing together people from different tribes and nations within the Northeast and providing them with a common language, English, praying villages became a center for the development of early ideas of what became pan-Indianism and expressions of frustration with the English status quo. Indians in praying villages, like those exposed to Spanish Catholic missions, learned the language and the governing tactics of the conqueror and tried to apply it.
Additionally, the praying villages helped create bicultural Indians who could act as intermediaries between the colonial powers and the various Indian groups. Praying villages also sped up the reduction of the Indian population. Attacks on praying villages became another form of suffering.
Praying villages became targets for whites bent on revenge against Indians. Often white settlers attacked praying villages in retaliation for Indian attacks from other groups. Every time a praying village came under attack, it weakened the lure of Christianity to Indians. Catholic missionaries accepted more deathbed conversions than Protestants. Protestant missionaries saw deathbed conversions as the act of a desperate soul and rejected them. Virginia approached the conversion of the Indians in a different manner. They also thought conversion to Christianity would lead to less conflict and would co-opt the Indians.
Initially, they began by asking Indian families to send boys to the colony, thereby exposing them to Christianity and civilization. When few volunteered their children for this program, the colony shifted tactics, offering land, homes, and cattle to Indian families who chose to live in the colony. Unlike praying villages, the Indians lived surrounded by white colonists, exposing their families to the market economy.
This program also received little interest from the Indians. Virginia then chose to offer an education through their established colleges, a privately funded initiative. Though those who took advantage of the offered education developed peaceful relations with the colonists, they also returned to their home tribes and to their own religious practices. Both the New England and Virginia models laid the basis for the rise of Protestant missionary societies in the 19th century. The Puritan and Virginia missions to the Indians faded away as colonial violence and conflict with England increased.
By the early 19th century, Protestant groups made new efforts to start up a mission system of their own to rival both the Spanish and French Catholic missions. Though both the French and the Spanish empires shrank during this period, their missions remained stable, with some new ones planted on the West Coast.
Catholic missions remained viable and important throughout the 19th century, as they sought to influence government policies toward the Indians. Historic American Buildings Survey. Between and the late s, several Protestant mission groups formed in England, Canada, and the United States with the sole purpose of creating a worldwide system of missions that would quickly and efficiently convert the heathen populations.
To succeed, they needed organization and plans that would work for all cultures. Earlyth-century Protestant missionaries believed that heathen lifestyles shared similarities. Following in the footsteps of early racial theorists, early missionaries believed that climate, environment, and other factors shaped culture, race, and beliefs. They turned these ideas into a plan for mission work, which would quickly engulf the world with Christianity. To their great credit, over the course of the 19th century, they slowly changed their plans as their understanding of culture, race, and belief became better informed, transformed by their frustration with the slow pace of conversion.
The majority of Protestant missionary societies in England, Canada, and the United States followed a simple plan for conversion of the heathen. They would send sponsored missionaries into a region. The missionary would then begin to learn the local language, translate the Bible, and begin acting as an example of Christian life. Through Bible study and a school, the missionary would teach the Indians English and the important parts of the Bible. They believed this process would lead to converts, the brightest of whom would act as an apprentice ministers.
With that person established as head of the mission, the British, Canadian, or American missionary would move on to the next group to set up a mission.
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The congregation left behind at the first mission would tithe, buy church publications, and provide funds to support future missions to their heathen brethren. At least on the face of it, this plan worked in many parts of the world. In India, China, and various African countries, the Protestant missions provided access to the colonial power structure through education, English language training, and contacts, thus attracting willing potential converts. Additionally, countries with urban centers and ostracized communities also delivered willing populations to the Protestant mission system.
These factors did not exist in North America. The Indian populations were not urban, did not produce pariah groups, and often already possessed economic ties to the colonial structure, sometimes through previous contact with Catholic missionaries. Those that did not have a relationship with the colonial structure had rejected the opportunity in favor of remaining independent. Western Indian groups within North America remained mobile and could simply move to avoid the missionaries. One of the great weaknesses of most Protestant missionary societies in North America lay in their inability to provide an inroad into colonial power structures.
They did not follow the same pattern as Protestant missions in Africa and China, where converts often moved from the mission into the colonial bureaucracy. By the midth century, Protestant missionary societies discovered that the missions produced few converts, often in the single digits. This fact hampered the missionary efforts both psychologically and fiscally. Without converts to take over the missions, the missionary societies needed to keep recruiting white missionaries.
Without converts to tithe and add to the coffers of the churches, the missions, both Protestant and Catholic, became expensive. The financial crisis led both Protestant and Catholic missionary societies into arrangements with the Canadian and U. They asked for treaties to solidify their hold on land and money for schools and churches.
Both governments responded positively but with strings attached. They wanted to see results: The missionaries failed on these fronts. Both sought to work with the government to stabilize fiscal support for their missions. And they established residential schools in the hope of converting and assimilating the next generation of Indians. Like other mission initiatives before them, these schools had benefits and losses for the Indians. Though others had tried schools for Indians in the 17th and 18th centuries, Colonel Richard Henry Pratt pioneered them again in the 19th century.
Under his initiative, the U. Both Catholic and Protestant missionaries ran schools. Some of the schools had abusive policies and teachers, which led to hard feelings between missionary groups and Indians for generations to come. Over the first half of the 19th century, missionary societies moved from acting independently to relying on the U. It solidified under President Ulysses S. This policy sought to fix the corruption in Indian policy and Indian agencies by removing political appointees from the positions and placing missionary societies, both Protestant and Catholic, in charge of it.
While it was well intentioned, as Grant believed that the altruistic missionaries would put Indians and peace first, it failed utterly. Missionary societies fought over who would control which agencies, how much money they should be granted, and who would control the schools. Additionally, missionaries discovered that the U. Indians were not given a choice of which missionary group would control their agency or reservation, nor were they given a voice in the policy.
By the s, political appointments and the civil service took over the reservations. By the last quarter of the 19th century, Protestant missionary societies reduced their workforce in North America. As the conversion rate remained relatively low compared with the rest of the world, the missionary societies focused their personnel and finances elsewhere. Missions closed, or sponsoring societies turned them over to their respective governments. Slowly, the various Protestant groups withdrew from their mission work with Indians, though not completely.
Despite this withdrawal, well into the 20th century Protestant groups continued to consider native churches as mission churches, limiting their self-governance and input into denominational organizations. Catholic and Protestant missions differed significantly in their theology, their staffing, their history, and their structures. The two traditions, however, shared much in the effects that their missions had on the Indian populations. Missions to the Indians of North America created two types of effects: Often the missions produced unintended, long-lasting consequences that shaped future choices and interactions for the Indian groups.
Both Catholic and Protestant missionaries approached mission work in the same way. They came to preach the Gospel and teach Indians about civilization. Individual missionaries saw themselves as models of Christian behavior and standards and hoped to influence the Indians by their actions. Catholic orders expected their missionaries to resist temptation with Indian women. Protestant groups sent wives with their missionaries to model the Christian family for the Indian groups. Missionary societies promoted missionaries as the exemplars of a Christian lifestyle.
They entered Indian villages with the belief that their daily actions would help teach and lead Indians to Christ.
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Be it sexual tensions for the Catholic priests or the fact that seminomadic groups continued to travel on the Sabbath for the Protestants, individual missionaries fought to create what they considered a Christian environment on the frontier of conversion. Additionally, both Catholic and Protestant missionaries believed that the Indian groups with whom they worked had adopted unchristian and uncivilized practices from the heathenish whites around them.
Both Catholic and Protestant missionaries created schools and towns where they could isolate converts and potential converts from the evils of native life and heathenish whites. This practice extended well into the 19th century and developed into the reserve and reservation systems we know today. Catholic and Protestant missionaries believed that isolating converts would make the process easier and protect them, but they were rarely able to isolate all of the Indians.
Only those willing to convert or those who needed the mission for protection or food entered the missions. Mission communities always represented a mixed society: Ironically, these communities, whether missions in the Southwest or praying villages in the Northeast, often became targets for white anger and violence. To support their missions, both sets of missionaries relied mainly on Euro-Americans for financial support, despite hopes that the Indians would take over the cost of their own conversion.
Though the Catholics had more success getting Indians to contribute to the church, those contributions never made up enough of the budget to fully fund the missions. During the Spanish period, Indians helped run the missions, working in the fields and other industries to support the missions. In the 19th century, Protestants expected Indians to use their money from trade to tithe to the mission and buy supplies, like Bibles.
This deficit led both Catholic and Protestant missionaries to turn to their respective governments, Spanish, French, English, and American, to help underwrite the costs of missions. Sometimes this support came in an overt form: At other times, it was more subtle: In all cases, it blurred the line between church and state. Furthermore, throughout the 19th century, the relationship between the U. In the early 19th century, the U.
By the s, the U. With the birth of the Peace Policy under President Grant, missionaries took a prominent role in government efforts to civilize the Indians and therefore terminate their land rights. In some cases, missionaries joined the government as advisers. In other cases, they acted as lobbyists. Those who began to work for the government often did so after years of mission work and the realization that most politicians did not represent the needs and desires of the Indian groups.
In rare and extreme cases, they sought to change policy by simply ignoring it. In the end, though, Catholic and Protestant missionary societies and individual missionaries attempted to influence government policy. Outside of serving in specific government roles, such as Indian agents or treaty negotiators, Catholic and Protestant missionaries became respected ethnographers, linguists, and early anthropologists.
They studied Indian societies intensely to better understand how to dismantle them. As with all outside observers, they filtered their interpretation of individual Indian cultures through the lens of their own experiences, the job with which their missionary societies tasked them, and the success of their mission. Often their experiences and beliefs shaped this information, which, when filtered through various government processes, created flawed policies. The final result, though, became a legacy of dictionaries, ethnographies, and cultural studies, some deeply flawed and others of which have become the means by which current Indian populations revitalize their culture.
All missionaries began with the assumption that civilization equaled Christianity and vice versus and that not being a Christian equaled not being civilized and living in a disorganized and savage state. This assumption that civilization and Christianity were one and the same led missionaries to evaluate and rank Indian cultures ethnographically based on their conversion to Christianity and white societal values.
Arcadia Publishing November 2, Publication Date: November 2, Sold by: Not Enabled Word Wise: Not Enabled Screen Reader: Enabled Amazon Best Sellers Rank: With expanding Irish, Swiss, French, and German immigrant populations, the state of Indiana evolved from individual explorers, trappers, hunters, and traders into family-focused communities of farmers and craftsmen. Emerging from the former Indiana Territory, the state's early population was in need of education, health care, and social services to assist young families, the poor, the infirm, and the elderly.
These needs were frequently met by Catholic religious orders, including the Benedictines, Sisters of Providence, Franciscans, Daughters of Charity, and other established organizations of dedicated religious men and women.
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Read more Read less. Enabled Optimized for larger screens Similar books to Indiana's Catholic Religious Communities Images of America Due to its large file size, this book may take longer to download. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Three Nuns from the Ranch. Editorial Reviews Review Title: New book features Indiana Catholic religious communities Author: Meinrad Archabbey Newsletter Date: Lifelong Catholic-educated authors Jim Hillman and John Murphy examine the secular social impact of the various religious orders woven into the fabric of Indiana's development: Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 2 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This is an excellent collection of photographs depicting the history of Catholic religious orders and tbeir work in Indiana.