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Zone jeunesse Curio 1. Services aux familles 9. Psychoses chez l'adolescent 6. Psychoses -- Traitement 6. Marijuana -- Effets physiologiques 6. Maladies mentales -- Diagnostic 6. Malades mentaux -- Soins 6. Jeunes adultes malades mentaux 6. Cannabis -- Effets physiologiques 6. Autistes -- Moyens de communication 6.

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United States -- Foreign relations -- Cuba 5. Social movements -- United States 5. Can we emerge unscathed from our errors? In taking a path sketched out in recent research on the fact of being wrong that distances itself from a purely cognitivist understanding, this article seeks to explore what an error does to the person who makes it. Hence it is possible to propose a classification of errors according to the rearrangement.

When hydrocarbons ai and gas are gathered in a distinct phase, they evolve in a fine porous medium that is usually water wet. The study involved two aspects: The objective of this work was to verify what kind of news is transmitted by the news program Terra News, and to compare it with the traditional news program we watch on TV. The study confirmed that Terra News utilizes conventional formats of news presentation and makes a selection of sensationalist news about fait -divers. Sensationalism and Fait -divers on the Internet. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of territory about the project of law, adopted by the Senate after urgency declaration no.

In an introductory part, the report recalls first the principle and implementation of the regulation of the natural gas market commission of energy regulation, role of the energy minister , and then explains its impact for the end-consumer and the conditions of the adaptation of the gas distribution network to this structure change reinforcement of market contestableness, Gaz de France monopoly, competition between infrastructures, problem of investments coordination.

The main part of the document concerns the works of the commission about the project of law adopted by the Senate, and the examination of its different articles: Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the adhesion of France to the protocol of the convention about the prevention of sea pollution resulting from the immersion of wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'adhesion de la France au protocole de a la convention de sur la prevention de la pollution des mers resultant de l'immersion de dechets.

The protocol adopted in London UK on November 7, aims at updating the London convention of December 29, about the control of all pollution sources that can affect the marine environment by immersion. The pollution sources in concern are: The new protocol deepens the London convention by the addition of two main environmental principles: However, these rules remain largely dependent of the good will of the states signatories to the protocol. This report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs stresses on the remaining gaps and limitations of the new protocol before giving its agreement for the adoption of the project of law submitted by the Senate for the adhesion of France to this protocol.

Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gaziere.

This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks.

It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion.

Models of vector meson production and the correlation with nuclear breakup are discussed, as well as a fundamental test of quantum mechanics that is possible with the system. Redox chemistry and natural organic matter NOM: Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare. Natural organic matter NOM is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM -mediated redox reactions are only partially understood.

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This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions.

In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples. Characterisation of natural organic matter NOM and its removal This was due to organics released from the resin during elution and a smaller Dissolved natural organic matter NOM impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in coontail Ceratophyllum demersum.

Dissolved natural organic matter NOM is dead organic matter exceeding, in freshwater systems, the concentration of organic carbon in all living organisms by far. Although NOM possesses several functional groups, a potential effect on aquatic organisms has not been studied. In this study, direct effects of NOM from various origins on physiological and biochemical functions in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum are presented. Environmentally relevant concentrations of NOM cause inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic oxygen production of C. Various NOM sources and the synthetic humic substance HS inhibit the photosynthetic oxygen production of the plant as observed with 1-amino-anthraquinone, a known inhibitor of plant photosynthesis.

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Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters. Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol.

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Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4— The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6. However, the addition of a natural organic matter NOM isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC—MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM.

The purpose of the article is to discuss current subcontracting in Brazil. We also identify the main forms of resistance and the counterbalances developed against work precarization and subcontracting. Report realized on behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission, of Defense and Armed Forces on the law project allowing the agreement approbation between the French Republic Government and the Russian Federal Government relative to the civil liability concerning the nuclear damages occurring from goods supplying to nuclear facilities in Russian Federation and becoming from the French Republic; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees sur le projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et le Gouvernement de la Federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la Republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en Federation de Russie.

The first part presents the international civil liability system in the nuclear domain and details then the 20 june agreement. It presents also the main aspects of the french-russian cooperation in the nuclear domain. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis.

Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. The combined effect of pH and calcium on the interactions of nonozonated and ozonated natural organic matter NOM with nanoscale TiO2 was investigated. It was demonstrated that depending on pH and TiO2 loading, the adsorption of NOM species is controlled by either the availability of divalent cations or by preozonation of NOM. Non-XDLVO interactions such as intermolecular bridging by calcium were hypothesized to be responsible for the observed adsorption behavior.

Adsorption data proved to be highly predictive of the permeate flux performance. Les faits porteurs d'avenir Panorama Presages for the Future. La demande mondiale est toujours en forte croissance. Thus, the benefits of both oil companies and service and supply ones have rocketed, while their market values have kept shooting up. Actually, those exceptional financial results have reflected a conjunction of elements favorable to the sector.

World demand is still growing rapidly. The hunting groundkeeps spreading, more particularly thanks to technological progress and the opening up of a large number of countries to international oil companies. This article presents a contrastive study of how we express emotions in Modern Greek and French. Our aim is to establish correspondences between the lexicons of emotions of these two languages.

Hence, we examine the syntactic and lexical properties of the Greek and French constructions, by taking into account the aspect and style modalities, as well as the specifications of the register in relation to the lexical elements involved namely, support verbs and nominal determinants. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and national development about the proposals of law: Richard Mallie, about various dispositions relative to miners rights and mines, no. Michel Sordi, about various dispositions relative to mines; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur les propositions de loi: Richard Mallie, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux droits des mineurs et aux mines, no.

Michel Sordi, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux mines. This report concerns two proposals of law which have a common concern: In this report, it is proposed to merge the contributions of both proposals with the creation of a new national agency for the warranty of the perenniality of miners' rights. It proposes also some necessary adaptations of the structures of Charbonnages de France group and some dispositions aiming at modernizing the French mining law and ensuring the exploitation of solid mineral fuels after the disappearing of the group. Report realized on behalf of the economic affairs, the environment and the territory commission, on the law project modified by the Senate, after urgency declaration n.

This report presents and discusses the modifications realized by the Senate on the law project relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It details then the different articles in three main chapters: Information report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs and of the plan, and of the energy study group, about the proceedings of the colloquium: This report presents the proceedings of the colloquium organized by the commission of economic affairs of the French Senate and by the energy study group.

It submits some questions in order to outline the options offered by the public authorities and the choices susceptible to be done by Electricite de France EdF and Gaz de France GdF in the framework of the European opening of energy markets in The future adaptation of the two public companies to this new organization is analyzed and the objectives and limits to assign to this European opening are discussed. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for n. This document presents the law project n.

The first part details the program of risks prevention technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation. The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces Commission on the bill project authorizing the ratification of the treaty between the French Republic, the United-Kingdom of Great-Britain and Northern Ireland related to common hydrodynamic and radiographic installations; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees 1 sur le projet de loi autorisant la ratification du traite entre la Republique francaise et le Royaume-Uni de Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande du nord relatif a des installations radiographiques et hydrodynamiques communes.

After a presentation of the main directions defined during the London summit for the French-British defence cooperation convergence of interests and ambitions, cooperation in the operational, capacity, technological and industrial areas , this report more precisely presents and discusses the cooperation perspectives in the military nuclear field deterrence by the French and British nuclear weapons, the experimentation as a field of cooperation, cooperation modalities with a common installation and a common technological development centre.

These perspectives encompass experimentation installations aimed at the simulation of nuclear weapons. Then, it details the content of the treaty related to common hydrodynamic and radiographic installations: Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France.

This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. The clean development mechanism is one of the Kyoto protocol flexible mechanisms. It is intended to allow industrialized countries to offset their greenhouse gas reduction targets by funding projects in developing countries that lead to reduced emissions.

In this framework, this law project aims to favor the cooperation between France and Mexico. The first part presents the advantages of the Kyoto protocol ane second part is devoted to the bilateral cooperation. In the framework of the convention of Geneva , eight specific protocols have been adopted, amongch the Goteborg protocol on the long distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution. In this context this report presents the reinforcement of the international tools of fight against the atmospheric pollution and the Goteborg protocol in the existing devices of the air pollution abatement.

Report on the behalf of sustainable development and land planning commission of a bill aiming at prohibiting the exploration and exploitation on non conventional hydrocarbons, at abrogating exclusive search permits for non conventional hydrocarbon mines, and to ensure more transparency in the mining code; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission du Developpement Durable et de l'Amenagement du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, visant a interdire l'exploration et l'exploitation des hydrocarbures non conventionnels, a abroger les permis exclusifs de recherche de mines d'hydrocarbures non conventionnels et a assurer plus de transparence dans le code minier n.

In the first part of this report, the author from the opposition party outlines the opacity of the attribution procedure defined in the mining code for search permits, the lack of recognition of the citizen mobilization, and the inefficient and inapplicable character of the law of on the search for non conventional hydrocarbon mining sites. In the second part, the author outlines the need for an environment-friendly energy strategy, while recalling the necessity of protection of the environment when exploiting subsoils, the necessity of implementing an energy transition, and the necessity to reform the mining law.

The discussion of the commission about the bill articles is reported. Report realized in the name of the economic, environment and territory commission, on the resolution proposition n. Bernard Deflesselles et Jerome Lambert, rapporteurs de la commission chargee des affaires europeennes, sur le paquet energie-climat. This report aims to evaluate a resolution proposition on five texts presented by the European Commission the 23 January Change of I-V characteristics of SiC diodes upon reactor irradiation; Modification des caracteristiques I-V de jonctions p-n au SiC du fait d'une irradiation dans un reacteur; Izmeneniya kharakteristik I-V vyrashchennogo v SiC perekhoda tipa p-n posle oblucheniya ego v reaktore; Modificaciones que sufren por irradiacion en un reactor las caracteristicas I-V de uniones p-n en SiC.

In search for semiconductors, which can be used in high-flux reactors in order to measure flux distributions, we irradiated SiC p-n junctions in the Belgium BR-1 reactor. Two types of SiC-diodes of different origin have been irradiated. These junctions are grown in the Lely-furnace. The changes in characteristics are given as well as the result of some annealing experiments.

Deux types de diodes a SiC d'origines differentes ont ete ainsi irradies. Les jonctions en question sont preparees par etirage dans le four Lely. Les auteurs indiquent les modifications subies par les caracteristiques, ainsi que le resultat de certaines experiences de recuit. Irradiaron dos tipos de diodos de SiC de. Report made on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project nr authorizing the ratification of the protocol modifying the protocol on transitory dispositions attached to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union, and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le Projet de Loi n.

This report first describes and comments the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty in terms of composition for the European Parliament, and more particularly the debate about the design of an efficient and representative parliament, the election mode and the seat distribution. Then, it describes how the modification protocol has been elaborated, its content general architecture, eighteen additional seats for twelve member States and their election modalities , and its implementation agenda and method.

Indian Institute of Management. Sport et politique au Senegal, de a Loum Journal de la Marche du foncier urbain et promotion du logement au Benin Pratique de la transfusion sanguine perioperatoire au Togo: I , qui, au Removal of different fractions of NOM foulants during demineralized water backwashing. The effectiveness of demineralized water backwashing on fouling by different fractions of NOM was investigated in this study.

Two types of natural surface water Schie canal and Biesbosch reservoir were tested to confirm the improvement. The results are compared with the NOM B6 steel behavior in the same conditions. NOM characterization and removal at six Southern African water treatment plants. Full Text Available Organic pollution is a major concern during drinking water treatment. Major challenges attributed to organic pollution include the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms, prevalence of toxic and physiologically disruptive organic micro-pollutants, and quality deterioration in water distribution systems.

A major component of organic pollution is natural organic matter NOM. The operational mechanisms of most unit processes are well understood. However, their interaction with NOM is still the subject of scientific research. This paper takes the form of a meta-study to capture some of the experiences with NOM monitoring and analysis at a number of Southern African Water Treatment Plants.

It is written from the perspective of practical process selection, to try and coax some pointers from the available data for the design of more detailed pilot work. Fractionation of the DOC based on biodegradability and molecular weight distribution was done at a water treatment plant in Namibia. A third fractionation technique using ion exchange resins was used to assess the impact of ozonation on DOC.

The more detailed characterization techniques showed that different unit processes preferentially remove different NOM fractions. Therefore these techniques provide better information for process design and optimisation than the DOC measurement which is routinely done during full scale operation at these water treatment plants. Species Identification and Virulence Attributes of Saccharomyces boulardii nom.

Recent studies have confirmed that S. The aim of the present study was to identify strains of S.

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Three strains of S. Therefore, classical methods used for the identification of Saccharomyces spp. Typing by using the restriction fragment length polymorphisms RFLPs of the PCR-amplified intergenic transcribed spacer regions including the 5. Therefore, the commercial strains of S. The results of the present study show that these S. Therefore, caution should be advised in the clinical use of these strains in immunocompromised patients until. In Quebec, a hierarchy of development poles identified formally in has been the base for establishing a descriptive and prescriptive model of spatial organization.

With Montreal as the main pole, those urban centers may drain, transform and diffuse development factors. Many intermediate centers are stagnants. But some centers and areas are strongly emerging. And development corridors are appearing outside the traditional Saint-Lawrence line. Finaly Quebec illustrates a phenonenon of spatial recentering of its socio. Or, il y a des lacunes sur le plan du signalement. Influence of natural organic matter NOM coatings on nanoparticle adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers.

As the worldwide usage of nanoparticles in commercial products continues to increase, there is growing concern about the environmental risks that nanoparticles pose to biological systems, including potential damage to cellular membranes. A detailed understanding of how different types of nanoparticles behave in environmentally relevant conditions is imperative for predicting and mitigating potential membrane-associated toxicities.


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Herein, we investigated the adsorption of two popular nanoparticles silver and buckminsterfullerene onto biomimetic supported lipid bilayers of varying membrane charge positive and negative. The quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation QCM-D measurement technique was employed to track the adsorption kinetics. Particular attention was focused on understanding how natural organic matter NOM coatings affect nanoparticle-bilayer interactions. Both types of nanoparticles preferentially adsorbed onto the positively charged bilayers, although NOM coatings on the nanoparticle and lipid bilayer surfaces could either inhibit or promote adsorption in certain electrolyte conditions.

While past findings showed that NOM coatings inhibit membrane adhesion, our findings demonstrate that the effects of NOM coatings are more nuanced depending on the type of nanoparticle and electrolyte condition. Taken together, the results demonstrate that NOM coatings can modulate the lipid membrane interactions of various nanoparticles, suggesting a possible way to improve the environmental safety of nanoparticles. A study of seasonal effects on metal- NOM interactions and the This paper reports on a study of calcium carbonate CaCO3 precipitation potentials of cooling water CW at Eskom power stations.

It is important to understand the complexation reaction between calcium and dissolved organic carbon Ca-DOC because the natural organic matter NOM affects the precipitation potentials Full Text Available Natural organic matter NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes.

This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents.

Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM , but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais.

The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache.

The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, , which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility.

Central Au on Au collisions. France ; Basrak, Z. In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, EOS , general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter.

Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic or quark matter.

For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei like Au on Au , supply the best ground for such studies: The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven.

Atomic force microscopy AFM was used to study interaction forces between four Natural Organic Matter NOM samples of different physicochemical characteristics and origins and mica surface at a wide range of ionic strength. All NOM samples were strongly adsorbed on positively charged iron oxide-coated silica colloidal probe. Cross-sectioning by focused ion beam milling technique and elemental mapping by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy indicated coating completeness of the NOM -coated colloidal probes. AFM-generated force-distance curves were analyzed to elucidate the nature and mechanisms of these interacting forces.

Electrostatics and steric interactions were important contributors to repulsive forces during approach, although the latter became more influential with increasing ionic strength. Retracting force profiles showed a NOM adhesion behavior on mica consistent with its physicochemical characteristics. Humic-like substances, referred as the least hydrophilic NOM fraction, i. However, adhesion force increased with increasing ionic strength, suggesting double layer compression.

Conversely, polysaccharide-like substances showed high adhesion to mica. Hydrogen-bonding between hydroxyl groups on polysaccharide-like substances and highly electronegative elements on mica was suggested as the main adsorption mechanism, where the adhesion force decreased with increasing ionic strength. Results from this investigation indicated that all NOM samples retained their characteristics after the coating procedure. The experimental approach followed in this study can potentially be extended to investigate interactions between NOM and clean or fouled membranes as a function of NOM physicochemical characteristics and solution chemistry.

The role of non-operative management NOM in blunt hepatic trauma. Full Text Available Background: NOM in blunt hepatic trauma is the preferred treatment in otherwise stable patients. To evaluate the role of NOM in blunt hepatic trauma, avoiding unnecessary surgery. Forty-four patients who presented with blunt hepatic trauma were admitted to the Emergency Unit. The patients were evaluated clinically. Abdominal computerized tomography was done to all hemodynamically stable patients and who were stabilized by the initial resuscitation. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively and the patients who needed laparotomy later were considered as failure of NOM.

Liver injuries due to penetrating causes were excluded. An informed consent was taken from each patient. Blunt trauma was the mechanism of injury in 44 patients The peak age was between 20 and 30 years. The male to female ratio was The mean admission systolic pressure was lower in the NOM failure group 90 vs. The factors that can suspect failure of NOM were the development of hemodynamic instability or the presence of associated injury that mandates immediate exploration.

Two types of natural surface water Schie canal and Biesbosch reservoir were tested to confirm the improvement of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control, and LC-OCD analysis was conducted on Schie canal water to find out which fraction of NOM was removed with those backwashes.