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Minor evidence of damp to the bottom corner of the rear board. A few small marks to the boards, including v. Very slight fading to the board edges.

No names, inscriptions or other marks. Dust jacket lightly bruised at spine ends and corners. Real Club Nautico de San Sebastian, Some very pale streaks to the back cover. In very good clean condition throughout. No names or inscriptions. A forwards lean to the spine and the spine is faded to brown and mottled with foxing.

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Previous owner's contemporary signature and date on the front endpaper. Reprint of December ; first published October A story of Spain and its Civil War, and a pair of star-crossed lovers. Festival Internacional de Cine. Text in Basque, English and Spanish, with all three languages arranged in separate paragraphs on each page. In very good condition throughout.

First printing of the UK edition; the book was first published in Spain. Why do bookshops matter? How do they filter our ideas and literature? In this inventive and highly entertaining extended essay, Jorge Carrion takes his reader on a journey around the world, via its bookshops. Bookshops is the travelogue of a lucid and curious observer, filled with anecdotes and stories from the universe of writing, publishing and selling books. A bookshop in Carrion's eyes never just a place for material transaction; it is a meeting place for people and their ideas, a setting for world changing encounters, a space that can transform lives.

Written in the midst of a worldwide recession, Bookshops examines the role of these spaces in today's evershifting climate of globalisation, vanishing high streets, e-readers and Amazon. But far from taking a pessimistic view of the future of the physical bookshop, Carrion makes a compelling case for hope, underlining the importance of these places and the magic that can happen there.

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A vital manifesto for the future of the traditional bookshop, and a delight for all who love them. The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova de Seingalt - 6 volumes, complete set. Putnam's Sons Elek Books [c. Hardbacks with dust jackets. Publication date of this edition not stated but is c. The first complete and unabridged English translation by Arthur Machen was first published in Bindings are pink cloth with gilt lettering to the spine. Minor bruising to spine ends and corners.

Bindings are all firm. Still a solid, attractive set. Other flaws as follows: I light creasing to top corner of first few pages; II small pale stain to the bottom corner of the textblock; III light foxing to outer closed textblock page edges and to prelims; IV very light foxing to textblock edges; V foxing to outer closed textblock page edges and pale stain to top closed textblock edge; VI foxing to closed textblock page edges, pale stain to top edge and pale stain affects the bottom corner textblock edge and margin of the last approx.

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There will be significant extra postage charges for international orders. A discount on postage is available for collection from our North Oxfordshire shop premises. Small bookseller sticker to the front pastedown. The pages are lightly age-tanned. Minor rubs to cover edges and some creasing in the cloth to the rear board. A few light marks to the covers. Interior in very good clean condition. Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more.

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Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more. How do you say , , , , and in spanish?? Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Related Questions How many of these wars and genocides of the past centruy were the result of women? I thought you religious people weren't suppose to judge people? Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala in Manila in and then repeatedly [12] reedited, with the last edition being in in Manila.

The indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar — is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura.

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Tagalog was declared the official language by the first revolutionary constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in In , the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages.

Quezon then, on December 30, , proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. The government shall take steps toward the development and propagation of Tagalog as the national language. In , the language was further renamed as "Pilipino". The adoption of Tagalog in as basis for a national language is not without its own controversies. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non- Tagalogs , especially Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection.

The national language issue was revived once more during the Constitutional Convention. Majority of the delegates were even in favor of scrapping the idea of a "national language" altogether. The constitution makes no mention of Tagalog. When a new constitution was drawn up in , it named Filipino as the national language.

However, more than two decades after the institution of the "universalist" approach, there seems to be little if any difference between Tagalog and Filipino. Many of the older generation in the Philippines feel that the replacement of English by Tagalog in the popular visual media has had dire economic effects regarding the competitiveness of the Philippines in trade and overseas remittances. Upon the issuance of Executive Order No. On 12th of April , Executive No. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.

The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. In , the Department of Education promulgated an order institutionalizing a system of mother-tongue based multilingual education "MLE" , wherein instruction is conducted primarily in a student's mother tongue one of the various regional Philippine languages until at least grade three, with additional languages such as Filipino and English being introduced as separate subjects no earlier than grade two.

In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction, with the learner's first language taking on an auxiliary role. It is the first language of a quarter of the population of the Philippines particularly in Central Luzon and a second language of the majority. Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects.

Northern exemplified by the Bulacan dialect , Central including Manila , Southern exemplified by Batangas , and Marinduque. Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. One example is the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, as of there were million people living in the Philippines, where almost all of whom will have some basic level of understanding of the language. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro , as well as Palawan to a lesser extent. Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups.

In [update] , the US Census bureau reported based on data collected in that in the United States it was the fourth most-spoken language at home with almost 1. Tagalog ranked as the third most spoken language in metropolitan statistical areas, behind Spanish and Chinese but ahead of French.

The Tagalog language also boasts accentations unique to some parts of Tagalog-speaking regions. For example, in some parts of Manila , a strong pronunciation of i exists and vowel-switching of o and u exists so words like "gising" to wake is pronounced as "giseng" with a strong 'e' and the word "tagu-taguan" hide-and-go-seek is pronounced as "tago-tagoan" with a mild 'o'. Batangas Tagalog boasts the most distinctive accent in Tagalog compared to the more Hispanized northern accents of the language. Nueva Ecija's accent is like Bulacan's, but with different intonations.

Tarlac also has this accent. Taglish and Englog are names given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs. Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to changing language in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog. Code-mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are "Filipinized" by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations.

Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use. The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Tagalog has 33 phonemes: Tagalog has ten simple vowels, five long and five short, and four diphthongs. This was later expanded to five with the introduction of words from Northern Philippine languages like Kapampangan and Ilocano and Spanish words. Long vowels are not written apart from pedagogical texts, where an acute accent is used: The table above shows all the possible realizations for each of the five vowel sounds depending on the speaker's origin or proficiency.

The five general vowels are in bold. Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word. Loanword variants using these phonemes are italicized inside the angle brackets. Glottal stop is not indicated.

"El año mil novecientos cincuenta."

Lexical stress , coupled with glottalization , is a distinctive feature in Tagalog. Primary stress normally occurs on either the final or the penultimate syllable of a word. Long vowel accompany primary or secondary stress unless the stress occurs at the end of a word. Tagalog words are often distinguished from one another by the position of the stress and the presence of the glottal stop. The penultimate primary stress position malumay is the default stress type and so is left unwritten except in dictionaries. The name of each stress type has its corresponding diacritic in the final vowel.

Tagalog, like other Philippines languages today, is written using the Latin alphabet.


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Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in and the beginning of their colonization in , Tagalog was written in an abugida —or alphasyllabary —called Baybayin. This system of writing gradually gave way to the use and propagation of the Latin alphabet as introduced by the Spanish. As the Spanish began to record and create grammars and dictionaries for the various languages of the Philippine archipelago, they adopted systems of writing closely following the orthographic customs of the Spanish language and were refined over the years.

Until the first half of the 20th century, most Philippine languages were widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. In the late 19th century, a number of educated Filipinos began proposing for revising the spelling system used for Tagalog at the time. In , Filipino doctor and student of languages Trinidad Pardo de Tavera published his study on the ancient Tagalog script Contribucion para el Estudio de los Antiguos Alfabetos Filipinos and in , published his essay El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog which made use of a new writing system developed by him.

Meanwhile, Jose Rizal, inspired by Pardo de Tavera's work, also began developing a new system of orthography unaware at first of Pardo de Tavera's own orthography. This new orthography, while having its supporters, was also not initially accepted by several writers. A fellow writer, Pablo Tecson was also critical. Among the attacks was the use of the letters "k" and "w" as they were deemed to be of German origin and thus its proponents were deemed as "unpatriotic".

The publishers of these two papers would eventually merge as La Lectura Popular in January and would eventually make use of both spelling systems in its articles. In it, he addressed the criticisms of the new writing system by writers like Pobrete and Tecson and the simplicity, in his opinion, of the new orthography.

Rizal described the orthography promoted by Pardo de Tavera as "more perfect" than what he himself had developed. In , Tagalog was selected to serve as basis for the country's national language.