However, some dishes may be pre-Ottoman, only taking Turkish names later; the historians of food John Ash and Andrew Dalby , for example, speculate that grape-leaf dolmadhes were made by the early Byzantine period , while Alan Davidson traces trahana to the ancient Greek tragos and skordalia to the ancient Athenian skorothalmi. Greek cookery makes wide use of vegetables, olive oil, grains, fish, wine and meat white and red, including lamb , poultry , rabbit and pork. Other important ingredients include olives, cheese, aubergine, courgette, lemon juice, vegetables, herbs, bread and yoghurt.
Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece: Lakerda , mizithra cheese and desserts like diples , koulourakia , moustokouloura and melomakarono also date back to the Byzantine period, while the variety of different pitas probably dates back to the ancient times. Mediterranean Italian cuisine includes much of Italy outside the north and the mountainous inland regions. It is a diverse cuisine, but among its best-known and most characteristic foods are risotto , pizza in Neapolitan and Sicilian styles , and pasta dishes such as spaghetti.
Risotto is a dish made using Italian short-grain rice, which is both highly absorbent and resistant to turning into a pudding when cooked with stock and flavoured with onions and garlic, cooked in butter. In San Remo it is onions cooked in olive oil, with salted sardines.
An Introduction to Mediterranean Cuisine
Spaghetti dishes also vary. It may be eaten as David says "simply with olive oil and garlic", without cheese, or with a sauce of "very red and ripe peeled tomatoes", cooked briefly and flavoured with garlic and either basil or parsley. One Sicilian variant includes pieces of bacon, onions fried in fat, garlic, stoned olives, and anchovies, served with olive oil and grated Parmesan cheese. Mediterranean French cuisine includes the cooking styles of Provence , Occitania , and the island of Corsica. Bouillabaisse is a substantial dish from the French port of Marseille , capital of Provence.
It is a stew for at least eight people, because it should contain many kinds of fish such as crayfish , gurnard , weever , John Dory , monkfish , conger eel , whiting , sea bass , and crab. These are cooked with Mediterranean vegetables and herbs, namely onions, garlic, tomatoes, thyme , fennel , parsley , bay, and orange peel. Spain's varied Mediterranean cuisines includes the cooking of Andalusia , Murcia , Catalonia , Valencia , and the Balearic islands. The dish may be varied with artichoke hearts , peas , sweet peppers, lima beans , string beans , or sausages.
The Mediterranean diet , popularised in the s, is inspired by the cuisine of parts of Greece and Italy in the early s. The Guida all'Italia gastronomica states that "around , under the impulse of one of those new nutritional directives by which good cooking is too often influenced, the Americans discovered the so-called Mediterranean diet.
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The name even pleased Italian government officials, who made one modification: Since David wrote about Mediterranean food in , and indeed since dietary researchers showed in the s that people around the Mediterranean had less coronary heart disease than the peoples of northern Europe, the traditional Mediterranean ways of life and of eating have changed.
Increased wealth and busy lives have led people to eat more meat and less vegetables: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ottoman cuisine and Turkish cuisine.
Mediterranean portal Food portal. Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 2 May Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13, years. The Complete Mediterranean Diet. More detail is given in Evolution and history of grapevine Vitis vinifera under domestication: Historical Geography of Crop Plants: Retrieved 8 May The book has been published with and without the "A Taste of Thyme" prefix.
University of Virginia Press. Retrieved 28 April The Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery.
University of South Carolina Press. Classical and molecular microbiological methods". Irene 7 September Retrieved 1 May Bottarga is hardly a new ingredient: It has been traded up and down the Mediterranean for thousands of years. Dorling Kindersley [John Lehmann]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Historical Dictionary of Algeria.
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Turismo gastronomico in Italia, Volume 1. The Oxford Companion to Food. A History of African Cuisine. Flavors of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lebanon and Syria; Maan Z. One Thousand and One Foods.
An Introduction to Mediterranean Cuisine
Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. Le Ricette Regionali Italiane 11th ed. The Everything Italian Cookbook: Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 2 June La cuina tradicional de les comarques gironines in Catalan. Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: Retrieved 28 March We present a food pyramid that reflects Mediterranean dietary traditions, which historically have been associated with good health.
This Mediterranean diet pyramid is based on food patterns typical of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early s, where adult life expectancy was among the highest in the world and rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and other diet-related chronic diseases were among the lowest. The American Diabetes Association. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Duqqa Ful medames Kushari Mulukhiyah. Bottarga Lamb Anise spirits. List of cuisines Lists of prepared foods.
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Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Pages containing links to subscription-only content Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL Good articles EngvarB from June Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 30 August , at While there is some cultural variation, eggplant, artichokes, squash, tomatoes, legumes, onions, mushrooms, okra, cucumbers, and a variety of greens and lettuces all flourish in this region and are commonly used.
Vegetables appear in dishes in a variety of forms: Meat is generally used sparingly in Mediterranean cuisine, and, in most of the Mediterranean, tends to be grilled. Goat and sheep milk are also used in a variety of Mediterranean dishes, primarily in the forms of yogurt and cheese.
Seafood is a more prevalently used protein source, appearing in variety of dishes. The close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea provides easy access to fresh seafood, which makes frequent appearances in dishes throughout the region. A preponderant use of fresh herbs characterizes Mediterranean cuisine. The climate and geography of the region is naturally suited to growing herbaceous plants, both indigenous and imported.
While there is some cultural variation in the use of certain herbs, overall the culinary traditions of the Mediterranean use basil, oregano, thyme, rosemary, marjoram, parsley, dill, mint, garlic, tarragon, fennel, cilantro, and saffron. Although there are common elements that unify the cuisines of the Mediterranean, there are some significant regional and cultural differences.
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The Mediterranean can be divided into three culinary regions: Yogurt and fresh cheeses like feta, halumi, and lebanah feature prominently in Eastern Mediterranean cuisine: The flavors of parsley, sumac, mint, and lemon juice dominate the Eastern Mediterranean cooking palate, while pomegranates and nuts are regular ingredients in sauces and spreads. Grains take the form of rice or flat breads like pita and lavash. Lamb, mutton, poultry, and goat meat are prominent proteins, and are typically grilled—either whole, as skewered chunks of meat like kebabs, or ground and skewered like kibbeh—or spit-fired like gyros.
Bulgar wheat is also used, predominantly in salads like tabouleh. Chickpeas are used in a variety of contexts, often as a meat substitute, and can be cooked whole, ground into a paste for a spread, or fried. Unlike other Mediterranean cuisines, wine is a prominent element of Southern European dining, both as a flavor enhancement in cooked dishes and on its own. Pork is also consumed more by these countries than the rest of the Mediterranean, and is more prevalent than goat, mutton, or lamb. Tomatoes, garlic, capers, anchovies, mustard, anise, and pine nuts are used in a variety of combinations to flavor Southern European dishes.
A multitude of different grains are consumed: North African cuisine is characterized by an abundant use of spices. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya all regularly use cumin, coriander, saffron, cinnamon, cloves, chilies, saffron, and paprika in their cooking traditions. Harissa and ras el hanout are two fiery spice mixtures used predominantly in Moroccan cuisine, giving a characteristic heat to stews and sauces. Dried fruit like dates, apricots, and raisins make frequent appearances in North African cuisine, both on their own and in cooked dishes.