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On tha other hand his later serious novels are gloomy, repellauit, and violent. His best work in this field is 'Dichter und VJelta-iann' ". It was this latter book that first interested Achim von Arnim in Kling- er. I shall now go on tc the 'Geschichte eines Deutschen nsuester Zeit ' ". In hia eaaay on "FnillBter" he mentions Klinger as be- ing an exception among the various I'aust writers who secretly fur: The discussion of Klinger ends with a further description of his personality and the details of a call upon him.

But these two elements have always been hostile, and they cannot live together easily in t? VI, 5; V, Careful search failed to locate the exact reference for this stateisant in the "Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde". Samtliche Warke, 5 Charakteri stiken und Kritiken. The "Fragiiente" as Gtirres calls the "Betrachtun- gen" contain among Duch that is excellent "innumerable sins against art, to which, almost all that he says about German poetry belongs".

Geschichte Giafars Des Barmeciden - Band 1 (German, Hardcover)

Of special interest, in view of Fichte's intimate relation with the Romantic movement is the following: Although he feels that in general Klinger's works only v. People will therefore pardon me when I say that Klinger' s 'Bambino' or the love of the page Fanno and the Princess Rose in his 'Goldner Hahn' are Romantic, and assert justly that he there first let Romantic rose and lily light fall upon the court life". Among these were the interests in the Middle Ages and in foreign lands. Klinger' s first drama, "Otto", influenced especially by Goethe's "GBtz von Berlichingen" plays in medieval Germany in the days of the struggles between the knights and the clergy.

Raphael and Ariosto are contempo- rary characters in "Die neue Arria". Lledieval Spain is the scene of "Sinisone Grisaldo" and definite Spanish places such as Granada and Valladolid should give the effect of reality. Nevertheless so far as impressions are concerned "we find ourselves in the old romantic land of Ariosto, and the action has entirely his fantastic style". Among the later dramas several deal with classical interests in motive and setting, but "Elfride" is based on tenth century English history, and "Der Gunstling" and "Roderico" use the scenes of medieval Spain again, the latter play with Navarra substituted for Granada by way of variation.

An interesting point in the study of symbolism is the question of es- tablishing some kind of connection between external Nature and the emotions of men. TShether Klinger' s treatment of the subject is conscious or half instinc- tive is difficult to determine. He says, as in inner torture he tries to make his final decision to murder his brother, "Let me never see the sun again. Let blacky fore- boding thunder clouds hang over the earth until I ara through".

There is a hint of the supernatural in Klinger' s first drajaa where Otto meets the old witch in the woods who prophesies of coming danger, a scene which reminds us of "Ilacbeth". It is "Der Derwisch", however, which possesses more of the purely fan- ciful than any of Klinger' s other plays.

The Dervish lives alone in his simple hut in a manner to rejoice the heart of a follower of Rousseau. They do know, however, that he possesses the art of restoring people to life "by means of a candle wiiich he lights after placing it between their lips. The love affairs of the Dervish and Fatime are interfered with by the Sultan and that brings the Dervish in touch with the other plot of the play which concerns the marriage of the Sultan's sister.

She cannot speak to any suitor until she has found her ninety-ninth diamond, and count as she will all day long there are only ninety-eight. The other one is hidden in a fold of the petticoat of one of the Princesses of Illyria and they, so we learn at the beginning of the play, have been changed into two clocks by the magician Primrose. They can be released from their enchantment if someone winds them up just at midnight and so they keep rolling from one new home to another always hoping their new owner vdll free them.

After the Princesses are changed to their proper form - the details of the plot do not concern us here - they appeal to the magician Primrose to help the Dervish out of his difficulties with Fatime and her brother. Px-imroso's voice is heard in the midst of thunder and lightning. By means of music the ma- gician causes the Sultan and his court to fall asleep so that the Dervish can get Fatime and Halli together and restore the right heads to the right bodies. Thunder and lightning continue while the Dervish is accomplishing this act and is succeeded by soft music when all is complete.

Then the Dervish, Fatime and Fatime' s mother are taken to the Ganges in a carriage of clouds provided by Primrose. My Dervish's hut is close to its banlca. Citron trees, poplars, and cedars shade it. There no Sultan disturbs us, there we are alone". Rieger considers this play, which "reflects the reality of human life in a fantastic setting", the best of Klinger' s early draanas. In the later drama "Medea auf dem Kaukasos" this power is also revealed; for example in her rescue of ths young girl by calling up a thunderstorm which kills the priest, shatters the altar, scatters the crowd and thus prevents the sacrifice.

As to Hecate, "It is nothing else than the Faust idea as Goethe originally understood it. The bursting of the bonds of a mortal personality, the intuitive knowledge of Nature in and from her innermost being, the becoming one with her and the adaptation of her powers to the service of a great will - Hecate, thought of not as a goddess but as a mortal woman, had accomplished this end. I - 24 - her mother from tha Lower World and Hecate appears first as a dark cloud in a cypress tree, then she reveals herself in her shadowy fora to Lledea.

Later she appears to the children as owls on the nearby tree and finally her voice seens to speak to Lledea again from an invisiljle form. A similar use of uncanny apparitions is found in "Der Gtinstling" and "Roderico" where Klinger uses the motive of hallucinations due to a guilty con- j science. In the latter play the king hears some one pass him quickly cut sees no visible person, or he sees his dead father sitting on the throne or perhaps standing between him and the person with whom he is talking. To return to the "lledea". Kar appearance in ths last act in her dragon chariot is, of course, traditional.

Then at her command the three invisible Erinyes who hav3 been tormenting Kreon, Kreusa and Jason, become visible and car- ry their victims away to the Lower World. The error due to stupidity was not so inapt after all, for Kling- er has spared no pains to make us feel that the events of the play are unavoid- able consequences of Fate.

Full text of "Die Ahnfrau"

The prologue spoken by Fate herself forecasts the mood of the play. All is peace and quiet, but the sun brings sorrow and woe to the realm. Kreon, the King of Corinth, has terrible dreams and begins to fear for the future and to plan to get rid of Medea. Aphrodite is revenging herself on the children of Kelios because he revealed her love for the god of war.

So she shoots an arrow into Medea's heart and later another into Jason's heart.

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So when Medea bewails the curse of Aphrodite which persecutes the children of ths sim, and fears that the spirits of revenge which she banished to the Lower V;orld when she took up her life as a hurnan being may overpower her in spite of herself, we feel that her fesurs are indeed well grounded, and that Fate will demand a revenge.

It is clear that Klinger has made the "Medea" a Fats-tragedy, despite his later spirited opposition to the introduction of the Fate element in the drama. Furthermore "Lledea in Korinth" is not the only play of Klinger' s which uses a Fate motive. In the fragment "Der verbannte G-Ottersohn", Jupiter is thoroughly disgusted with the behaviour of mortals and tired of their prayers and complaints and offerings.

But then he remembers, "Do I not drive them like a whirlwind against each other and among each other? Have I not formed their hearts and minds thus, turned their faith thus to me, and laid in their hearts the fatal conceptions of Fats and Destiny which must crush their greatness and strength? In "Lledea auf dem Kaukasos", Klinger' s last drana. Fate instead of being given a prologue is made an actual character of the play.

It is of course true that the G-reek literature was the ultimate source of the Fate-tragedy. Storm and Stress gives no expression to this conception of Fate and we are there- fore justified in considering it one of the chief Romantic elements in Klinger' s drainas, together with the interests in distant lands and times, in a connection between man and naturs. The similarity is not surpris- ing when we remember that Klinger wrote the drama between the fourth and fifth parts of "Orpheus", for it must be admitted that the last of this apparently inexhaustible novel was written more on account of the money it would bring than on account of trying to satisfy an inner need for self expression.

Host of th3 more fantastic touches are to be found in the stories subordinate to the main one of Bambino's adventures. Thus in the third part the magician Linko appears. Most of the fourth part, however, is concerned with Bambino' adventures, which had been rather neglected in part three. I, - Prince Formoso is given a fiddle bow by the magician Eradames and is to find the fiddle that matches it since "fiddles and fiddlebows rule the state".

Lleanwhile the fairy Sorena has given ths Princess Sanaclara the fiddle which matches Formoso' s bow and it will begin to play by itself when the right bow is found. But since many fiddlers are attracted to Sanaclara the fairy has also given her a trumpet at whose sound all but the right bow will break in pieces. With this situation as a setting Formoso has one strange adventure after another. An interesting point in relation to the style of "Formoso" is the con- stant interruption of the story by questions that the King asks, or by comments addressed to the reader, or by answers to supposed questions of the reader's.

The effect of such interruptions is practically the same as that of the Romantic irony in the rather exaggerated form in which the aim was "ZerstBrting der Il- lusion". It is only in the episode of Formoso that Klinger breaks into the con- tinuity of his story to carry on aji interview with the reader. The plan which he worked out for the series involved ten novels, tiut of these only eight were fully coEnpleted, ona reniained a fra. The series was as follows: Faust s Leben, Thaten und Hfillenfahrt.

Geschichte Raphaels de Aquilas. Geschichte Giafars des Barmeciden. Reisen vor der Stindflut.

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Der Faust der iaorgenlftnder. Cas allzu fruhe Eru-achsn des G-enius der Menschheit; ftrttchstuck.

Geschichte eines Teutschen der neuesten Zeit. Sahir, Evas Srstgeborner im Paradiese, ; unter dem Titel: For the purposes of this study "Faust", "Raphael" and "Sahir" will "be especially considered. But limiting the more detailed analysis to these three novels is not intended to imply that the others are destitute of any Romantic characteristics. Quite the contrary is true. The scenes of "Giafar", one of the companion novals of "Faust" are in the Orient. Giafar has fled from Bagdad with his mother and his niece Fatime, and in a wilderness by the Euphrates learns all that he can about his own and other religions.

As a result of his study he is convinced that there remains only a gloociy outlook so far as moral evil is concerned. The moral storm and the physical storm - again ths expression of an intimate relation between Nature and lian. Juat as Giafar awakes thinking that he has avenged his father and is caliph himself, Ahmet reveals the fact that it was his power that caused Giafar to have the dream.

We therefore suspect that Alimet has something supernatural in his nature. Our suspicion is confirmed when he vanishes in the midst of a flame.

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The next book shows that Ahmet is the Le- viathan of "Fausf'j and he continues his intercourse with Giafar when the latter returns to the service of the Caliph. In the former there is a framework for Ilahal' s travels which has the flavor of the Arabian Nights' Tales, for the stories are told to the Caliph by Esn Hafi.

The character of Llahal is portrayed as a finally despairing one who turns to stone as he bewails the fate of men. Abdal- i lah, who is the Oriental Faust, conjures up a spirit, not from the dwelling place already described but from a cold and dismal neighboring island, made thus by the rule of Reason. The spirit is the abstraction of beauty, without a soul, and ice-cold in his nobility. He therefore constantly checks and warns Abdallah as the latter is about to carry out the impulses arising from the dictates of his heart.

Abdallah's adventures, his saarch for the happiness of in- nocence, his final despair, attempted suicide ajid his rescue form the basis for Ben Hafi's tales. After Abdallah' s rescue from the sea, an event which had been on the last page of the book of Fate and had therefore not been knovm by the spirit, the latter appears for thj last time and gives Abdallah a signet ring, vshich if carefully guarded will restore to him what he has lost - greatness, hap-j piness and power. In common with the symbolic significance of the figure of stone and of the signet ring in the Oriental novels, there is that of the wreath in the "Geschichte eires Teutschen".

Ernst hung this wreath in the grotto as a sign of his belief in virtue. After years have passed, after his wife and friend have proved faithless, and his child is dead, he returns there seeking shelter from a thunderstorm. Seeing the withered wreath he tears it down and hurls it Into the abyss below. His faith in mankind is destroyed, and he continues his life absolutely alone. Klingers philosophische Romane; Curing hie convaleacence he succeeds in making Ernst proaaise to visit the grotto with hixu.

Nor are Romantic touches absent from the character of the "Ueltroann" in "Der Welticann und der Dichter". He might reasonably be expected to be an ex- ponent of a materialistic philosophy, but even he finally begs the poet to read j to him. Therefore they will be discussed only as they are needed to furnish a background for the Romantic touches that occur to a greater or less degree in each of ths remaining novels.

I We have seen in other works of Klinger's the significance he attached to storms. Black night lies on the earth. The storm howls from the north, the clouds hide the full moon, Nature is in an uproar". The Genius has come to save Faust if such a thing is still possible, but Faust will have nothing to do with him and the Genius vanishes, sighing, "You will see me again". All the horrors of Satan's feast are described in the next few chapters. Leviathan is chosen to go and Faust demands of hiin an explanation of the things that perplex him.

I insist upon knowing the cause of moral evil in the worlds why the just auffer and the wicked are happy". The murmuring of a gentle west wind is heard, ths rauraiur increases to a louder howling that is like rolling thunder and Faust collapses within the magic circle. Recovering himself vdth difficulty he is angered as he realizes his inability to comprehend Leviathan. Finally they make a wager. Faust is to force Leviathan to believe in Llan' s virtue; Leviathan is to prove that virtue does not exist, and thus Faust's journeys begin.

After the wager is made he tempts Faust with a casket of gold and a passing procession of beautiful women. Then he shakes out insignia of various honors which at the command "Be- coEie what you are", change to dust. To help Faust gain revenge upon the stupid Biirgermeister and his associates he causes a fog to fill ths banquet hall. Ths roast geese, ducks, chickens, pigs, veal, mutton and beef quacked, crowed, grunted, bleated, bellowed, flew over the table and ran across it.

Tlie wine gushed out of the flasks in flames of fire". Leviathan changes the pieces of gold which ths judge accepted as a bribe into rats and mice which ate him up alive. Faust derives a horrible satisfaction from seeing the bishop terrorized and fainting as thi roasted calf's head suddenly turns into the head of the dead peasant. At another time Leviathaji laughs at a story a nearby spirit is telling him and at Faust's comiriand a voice sounds forth close beside him and tells him the tale.

In addition to the introduction of ths mira. These, according to the Romantic conception, were means of gaining new revelations of th; Infinite.


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VJe had such fearful dreams and apparitions; when my eyes, weary with tears, closed I saw you torn from us forci- bly and everything was so dark and fearful", Faust's father questions when he sees all the money and jewels which Faust has brought, "Have you gained these things in an honest fashion? He sees all people 7;orking with joy and happiness at the "building of a great temple. Faust tries to enter the temple but is repulsed with such force that he falls into an abyss, and just as he awakes his father's shrouded form pulls aside the bed curtains saying, "Faustl Faust", llever did a father beget a more unhappy son; with this feeling did I die".

Four phases of Romanticism find expression in "Raphael" - the moods of Nature, a delight in loneliness "Einsamkeit" , a certain mystical relation which Raphael feels binds him to the world of spirits, and resignation to Fate. The description of the landscape and its effect upon the chance traveller in the in- troductory chapter of "Raphael" might easily have come from the pen of a Romantic writer.

A thick, dark woods was back of the castle and only a steep, toilsome path led to its iron gate, the entrance of vrfiich two gigantic pillars of basalt seemed to guard. The nearby mosque, built of rocks, which had been cov- ered with moss-grown ruins in order to guard it from destruction by the Christ- ians, moved the soul of the traveler to deep contemplation about men, time, birtl death, fame and oblivion.

The storm roared from the sea. Surrounded by the howling vdnd, by the rushing pinions of revenge, he sprang on the rock. Through the darkness the fire blazed up opposite him. The priests in muffled, hollow tones cried out to Eternity the last song of condemnation over the dead as their bones sank into ashes".


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Affected by this mood Raphael revenges himself upon the priests. The father feels that death is near and he therefore tells his son the story of his life.

Geschichte Giafars des Barmeciden

So we hear how Don Roderiko happened to become blind, a story which arouses one's indignation, and we learn of his life in hiding with his wife and child, Raphael's older brother. The death of the child, however, destroyed their happiness and the "Trost der Ein- samkeit". Again, in the loneliness of the prison in Uadrid, Raphael's soul "attained the highest point of its power", Numerous references are made to Raphael's relation to the unseen world. Please try your request again later. Are you an author? Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography.

Learn more at Author Central. Popularity Popularity Featured Price: Low to High Price: High to Low Avg. Medea auf dem Kaukasos. German Edition Apr 26, Available for download now. Only 1 left in stock - order soon. Geschichte eines Teutschen der neusten Zeit: Only 1 left in stock more on the way. Geschichte Giafars Des Barmeciden: German Edition Jan 01, Die Zwillinge German Edition.